Maternal age is one of the factors limiting the reproductive success. After 30 years, it is well documented that not only the quantity, but also the quality, of female gametes progressively decline, as indicated by decreased fertilization rates, increased risk of birth defects, genetic disorders and miscarriages, at higher female ages. Also during in vitro fertilization cycles, older women tend to produce less oocytes after hormonal stimulation and derived embryos have a lower implantation potential. Although several studies on oocyte and follicular somatic cells have shown transcriptome and proteome modifications with maternal aging, to date, the molecular reasons for the reproductive decline in females are still unclear. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNA molecules known to modulate gene expression through post-transcriptional mechanisms, have drawn attention for their prominent role in human diseases. miRNAs are essential for regulation of several processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, angiogenesis and apoptosis. Even if most studies concern cancer, miRNAs are becoming a topic of considerable interest also in reproductive biology. Moreover, the discovery that miRNAs might act not only within cells, but also may be involved in intercellular communication has particularly interested the scientific community. Similarly to cellular miRNAs, the profiles of circulating miRNAs may be associated with specific diseases. Recent studies demonstrated the presence of miRNAs in human follicular fluid that are implicated in regulation of follicle maturation. Interestingly, it has reported also a correlation between changes in miRNA expression and aging and between miRNAs and epigenetics. Growing evidences, in fact, support a role for miRNAs as both targets and effectors in mechanism of DNA methylation and/or histone modification and suggest that altered DNA methylation levels with aging, may be related to a lower oocyte quality.